Glossary Postings List
DIGITAL CHILD EXPLOITATION FILTERING SYSTEM
Social media is changing PR practice. The CIPR has created a dedicated social media panel that includes some of the UK's best thinkers to support our members and to develop guidance on a number of key areas including social media measurement, best practice social media guidelines, informal workshops to engage our members with experts and a series of interviews with some of the world's leading social media thinkers and practitioners.
All this comes under the heading of what Manes calls "inference analysis," the science of assembling pieces of information to see what can be learned. His company uses inference analysis to discover what sensitive information his clients are sharing online, and he says criminals are out there doing the same thing.
Written by the Computer Ethics Institute
by the Computer Ethics Institute
Contact: Stuart Allen
sallen (at) computerethicsinstitute.org
This page last updated on August 11, 2008 by Webmaster.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Their dignity and rights must also be respected and protected on the Internet.
All rights and freedoms contained in this Charter are universal.
Accordingly, everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Charter, without distinction of any kind, such as ethnicity, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status or condition.
Everyone has the equal right to access to the Internet. Where appropriate, this includes the right to broadband access.
As the Internet has become an indispensable tool for many life-related functions and is necessary for the enjoyment of other rights like the right to education, all people must have access to the Internet at affordable conditions.
Freedom of Access includes freedom of choice of system and software use. To facilitate this and to maintain interconnectivity and innovation, communication infrastructures and protocols should be interoperable.
Internet access can only be restricted for necessary, clearly specified and law-based reasons like efforts to eradicate child abuse. Any restrictions must be strictly proportionate to the threat at hand and must not undermine the openness of the Internet or its capacity to support human rights.
An Internet based society and economy requires that all have an equal opportunity for active and effective participation in and through the Internet. To this end active support should be available for self-managed and other community-based facilities and services to ensure universal digital inclusion. Digital inclusion requires the opportunity for access to, and effective use of the range of digital media, communication platforms and devices for information management and processing.
Everyone, in particular governments and business, should undertake steps individually and through international assistance and cooperation towards digital inclusion, i.e. equal access to information technology and eliminating any discrimination in access to the Internet.
To contribute towards this end, public Internet access points must be made available, such as at telecentres, libraries, community centers, clinics and schools as well as support to access via mobile media so that all people can have access where they live or work.
Women and men have an equal right of access to learn about, define, access, use and shape the Internet. Efforts to increase access must recognise and redress existing gender inequalities. There must be full participation of women in all areas related to the development of the Internet to ensure gender equality.
Interfaces, content and applications must be designed to ensure accessibility for marginalised groups, people with disabilities and people with different capacities to read and write.
The principle of inclusive design and the use of support technologies must be promoted and supported to allow persons with disabilities to benefit fully and on an equal basis with others.
People of all ages, including the young and the elderly, have a right to attention to their specific needs in using the Internet as part of their entitlement to dignity, to participate in social and cultural life, and enjoy other human rights.
Everyone has the right to the protection of their liberty and security online. This includes protection against all forms of online harassment, trafficking, cyber-stalking and misuse of one’s digital identity and data.
Everyone has the right to enjoy functional and secure connections to and on the Internet.
Any security measures which affect the Internet shall be consistent with international human rights laws and standards as well as the rule of law. They should be necessary for, and proportionate to, the relevant purpose.
All people are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law in matters regarding the Internet. (This applies online as well as offline.)
This however does not preempt any special legal protections or measures at protective discrimination for people and groups who may be structurally discriminated and require such measures to ensure their substantive equality with others.
The Internet and physical means of traffic on it shall be available to all on uniform, non-discriminatory terms. Internet content should not be prioritised or discriminated against for economic, social, cultural, religious or political reasons. Control of Internet content must not affect the equal right of all people to express themselves and access information online.
The public service value of the Internet should be protected, including access to quality and diverse information as well as different cultural content.
The Internet should represent a diversity of cultures and languages in terms of appearance and functionality. Cultural and linguistic diversity on the Internet should be encouraged in form of text, as image and sound. Technological evolution and innovation to promote diversity on the Internet should be encouraged.
All individuals and communities have the right to use their own language to create, disseminate, and share information and knowledge through the Internet. Special attention should be given to minority languages.
The right to development includes the full enjoyment of all rights related to the Internet and set out in this Charter. Donor institutions and businesses have a particular obligation to promote this right to their maximum capacity.
Everyone has a responsibility to use the Internet in a sustainable and ecologically viable way. This relates also to the disposal of e-waste as to the use of the Internet for the protection of the environment.
c. Poverty Reduction and Human Development
Information and communication technologies have a vital role to play in helping to achieve the U.N. millennium goals of eradicating poverty, hunger, and diseases and promoting gender equality and empowerment of women, particularly in the developing world. All stakeholders should consider how they can develop and implement technology that contributes to the eradication of poverty, to enabling education and to sustainable human development and empowerment.
Everyone has the right to express one’s opinions on the Internet without interference.
Everyone has the right to freedom of expression on the Internet, which includes the freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, and regardless of frontiers through any media of his or her choice
Freedom of expression is an essential pre-condition for the realisation of other rights, freedoms and social goods, including democracy, education and human development. It is therefore closely linked to the need for plural and diverse content, and the equal entitlement of all people to make their voices heard in the public domain.
Organisations, communities and individuals have the right to use the Internet to organize and engage in online and offline protest.
Restrictions on content by censorship or filtering must be based on law and be consistent with international human rights laws and standards as well as the rule of law. They should be necessary for and proportionate to the relevant purpose.
The Internet should be free from censorship and filtering. Internet service providers, search engines and other intermediaries that are forced by governments to implement censorship or filtering should fully inform users of the censorship criteria being used, and specify the relevant laws and regulations requiring it.
Criteria for any filtering or censorship can only be considered legitimate if it is permissible under national and human rights law, developed in a publicly accountable and transparent manner, and is publicly auditable and accountable.
A clear, efficient and user-friendly appeals mechanism must be provided so that users can appeal to the service provider and the government if they feel that content is illegally or accidentally restricted.
Everyone has the right to receive and impart information and ideas through the Internet.
Everybody has the right of access to government information, according to international law or laws passed democratically at the national level.
Everyone has the right to express and practice their faith on the Internet. This includes exchange of information, communication, expression of opinions and formation of religious communities or associations. Public or private actors must not repress or persecute people for their religion or beliefs expressed on the Internet.
The beliefs and opinions of others should be respected. Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred on the Internet that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence should be prohibited by law.
The users of ICT tools, services and platforms must be allowed to form, join, meet or visit an assembly, group or association for any reason, including political and social. Access to assemblies and associations using ICTs must not be blocked or filtered.
Everyone has the freedom to establish or join online communities.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with their privacy, family, home or correspondence on the Internet. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
National legislation on privacy should be based upon international privacy frameworks that comply with the rule of law, respect fundamental human rights, and support democratic institutions.
Everyone has a right to a digital identity.
The digital identity of the human person, i.e. the personal identification in information systems is inviolable.
Digital signatures, user names, passwords, PIN and TAN codes must not be used or changed by others without the consent of the owner.
The virtual personality of human persons needs to be respected. However, the right to a virtual personality must not be misused to the detriment of others.
Everybody has the right to determine the circulation and the use of his own personal data. This right might be restricted only in the case of prevalent public interest.
No one and no community shall be subjected to unlawful attacks on their/its honour and reputation on the Internet. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
e. Right to Anonymity and to Use Encryption
Every individual has the right to communicate anonymously on the Internet and to use encryption technology. to ensure secure, private and anonymous communication.
Everyone must be free to communicate without arbitrary surveillance or interception, or the threat of surveillance or interception. This includes the use of technologies such as deep packet inspection, behavioural tracking and exercising control over individuals, for example through cyber-stalking. Any agreement regarding access to online services that includes acceptance of such surveillance shall clearly state the nature of the surveillance.
Personal data must be protected. Fair information practices should be enacted into national law to place obligations on companies and governments who collect and process personal data, and give rights to those individuals whose personal data is collected.
Public or private organisations that require personal information from individuals must collect only the minimal data necessary and for the minimal period of time needed. Data must be deleted when it is no longer necessary for the purposes for which it was collected. Data collectors have an obligation to seek active consent and to notify people when their information has been forwarded to third parties, abused, lost, or stolen. Data Security
Appropriate security measures shall be taken for the protection of personal data stored in automated data files against accidental or unauthorised destruction or accidental loss as well as against unauthorised access, alteration or dissemination.
Data protection should be monitored by independent data protection authorities, which work transparently and without commercial advantage or political influence.
Everyone has the right to be educated about the Internet and to use the Internet for education.
Everyone has the right to use the Internet to access knowledge, information and research. Providers of tools, Internet services and content should not prohibit people from utilising the Internet for shared learning and content creation.
Virtual learning environments and other sorts of multimedia, learning and teaching platforms should take into account local and regional variations in terms of pedagogy and knowledge-traditions.
Publications, research, text books, course materials and other kinds of learning materials should preferably be published as Open Educational Resources with the right to freely use, copy, reuse, adapt, translate and redistribute them. Publishers and authors should not enter contractual obligations which prevent the publication of scientific and other works on the Internet.
Education on the Internet should include raising awareness and respect for human rights (online and offline).
Digital literacy should be a key component of education. Knowledge and skills enable people to use and shape the Internet to meet their needs. Local and national governments, international and community organizations and private sector entities should support and promote free or low-cost training opportunities, methodologies and materials related to using the Internet for social development.
Everyone has the right to use the Internet to freely participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share its scientific advancements and benefits. This includes the right to access knowledge and information on the Internet, regardless of frontiers.
No restrictions must be placed on cultural expression and activities online.
Everyone should be able to create and access information in their mother tongue.
Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production in the Internet of which he/she is the author. Creators should be remunerated and acknowledged for their work in ways that do not restrict innovation or access to public, educational knowledge and resources.
However, licensing and copyright of content should permit knowledge to be created, shared, used and built upon. Creators and users should use licensing models such as Creative Commons.
Internationally accepted ‘fair use’ exceptions and limitations to copyright should always be used, including making copies for personal and classroom use, format conversion, library lending, review, critique, satire, research and sampling. Digital Rights Management (DRM) –techniques must not prevent ‘fair use’ exceptions.
Publicly funded research and intellectual and cultural work should be made available freely to the general public.
Open standards and open formats should be made available wherever possible.
Free/libre and Open Source Software (FOSS) should be used, promoted and implemented in public and educational institutions and services.
When a free solution or open standards do not exist, the government or the corresponding public institution should promote the development of the software needed.
a. Right to benefit from the Internet
Children should be able to benefit from the Internet according to their age. Children should have opportunities to use the Internet to exercise their civil, political, economic, cultural and social rights. These include rights to health, education, privacy, access information, freedom of expression and freedom of association. Children who are capable of forming their own views have the right to express them in all Internet policy matters that affect them, and their views should be given due weight according to their age and maturity.
Children have a right to grow up and develop in a safe environment that is free from sexual or other kinds of exploitation. Measures should be taken to prevent the use of the Internet to violate the rights of children, including through trafficking and child abuse imagery. However, such measures should uphold the rights of the child and should not disproportionately or unnecessarily restrict or endanger the free flow of information online.
In all matters of concern to children and the Internet, the best interest of the child shall be the primary consideration.
Workers' rights must be respected in the information society. A necessary prerequisite for realizing these rights for employees is the right to use the Internet to form trade unions, including the right to promote one's own interests and gather in freely elected organs of representation.
Workers and employees should have Internet access at their work place, where available.
Any restrictions on Internet use
in the work place should be explicitly stated in staff or
organizational policies. The terms and conditions for surveillance of
the Internet use of employees must be clearly stated in work place
policies and comply with the right to data protection.
Everyone has the right to participate in electronic government where available.
Everyone has the right to equal access to electronic services in his country.
E-democracy and online voting should be promoted whenever it bears the potential to enable a more participatory democracy where political decisions are debated and taken by more people, provided its security can be assured.
Everyone has the right to participate in the governance of the Internet.
All stakeholders should follow the principles of transparency, information and participation in processes concerning Internet governance.
Everyone, in particular business and governments, should respect, protect and fulfill principles of consumer protection on the Internet. E-Commerce should be regulated by governments in a way that ensure consumers the same level of protection as they enjoy in non-electronic transactions.
Everyone has a right to access health-related and social services as well as their own electronic health records on the Internet.
Everyone has the right to an effective legal remedy against any charges brought against him/her by public authority or a private person with regard to matters related to the Internet.
In the determination of any criminal charge or civil rights or obligations regarding the Internet, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public trial hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law.
Everyone charged with a criminal or civil law offence regarding the Internet shall be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law.
Everyone is entitled to due process by public or private authorities dealing with legal claims or possible violations of the law regarding the Internet.
All action taken against illicit activity on the internet must be aimed at those directly responsible for such activities.
No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on the Internet on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national or international law at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the criminal offence was committed.
No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an Internet offence for which he has already been finally acquitted or convicted.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order of the Internet in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realised.
The Internet as a social and international order should enshrine principles of multilingualism, pluralism, and heterogeneous forms of cultural life in both form and substance.
The Internet and the communications system should be governed in such a way as to ensure that it upholds and expands human rights to the fullest extent possible.
The interests of all those affected by a policy or decision should be represented in the governance processes, which should enable all to participate in its development. Transparency and full and effective participation of all, in particular disadvantaged groups in global, regional and national decision-making should be ensured.
Everybody using the Internet has duties and responsibilities as well as rights. These include respect for the rights of all individuals in the online environment.
Power holders should exercise their power responsibly, refrain from violating human rights and respect, protect and advance them to the fullest extent possible.
All rights contained in this Charter are interdependent and mutually reinforcing.
Any restrictions of rights in this Charter must be necessary, proportionate, defined in law and consistent with international human rights law and standards.
Restrictions must not be applied for any other purpose other than those for which they have been described.
The fact that certain rights and principles have not been included in this Charter or have not been developed in detail does not preclude the existence of such rights and principles.
Nothing in this Charter maybe interpreted to impair any of the rights and freedoms set forth therein.
The above discussion throws up several interesting questions. One is whether the entire cyber world is in fact getting fragmented in the process of devising laws and procedures reflective of the tension between being overly protective of domestic interests and having too little regulation of the internet.
Wendy Adams contextualizes the pros and cons of ‘universal permission’ as opposed to ‘universal prohibition’ in the following words:
Resolution of the issue of jurisdiction in relation to commercial websites that do not appear to be directed towards a specific territorial market requires that a default legal rule be established in favour of either the location of the commercial website (which may refer either to the location of the initial server, the location of one or more caching servers, or the website operator’s usual place of business), or the location of the person accessing the website (an inquiry which could also be complicated by issues of nationality and residence). A default rule favouring the location of the website would amount to universal permission, whereby the commercial website operator is presumed to be in compliance with local regulation to which he is subject, and individual states must in effect opt-out of this rule by applying indirect regulation to prohibit residents from accessing commercial websites in violation of local laws.
The Internet is caught between old forces of local territorialism and new forces characteristic of global economies. As a result, it may end up being carved up or fragmented into discrete legal spheres - a development which contradicts the hitherto traditional vision of the Internet as a paradigmatic example of a borderless world of global transnationalism.
The fragmentation is taking two forms. The first may be represented as vertical in nature; led by the forces of territorialism, it reflects concerns of public policy and the protection of local values. The second, which may be considered horizontal, is driven by the rationale of commercial efficiency.116 (Emphasis Supplied)
“The internet has no territorial boundaries. To paraphrase Gertrude Stein, as far as the internet is concerned, not only is there perhaps ‘no there, there’, the ‘there’ is everywhere where there is internet access.”121
This article traced the difficult and different paths that common law courts traversed in trying to formulate a definitive test which would lend legal certainty in tackling the complex problem of courts exercising jurisdiction in disputes arising out of activities on the internet. The problem is perhaps compounded by the fact that the technology which is rapidly changing is at least two steps, if not more, ahead of the law. The ‘catch up’ by the law appears as of now a mirage.
January 11, 1944
Excerpted from Franklin Delano Roosevelt's message to Congress on the State of the Union. This was proposed not to amend the Constitution, but rather as a political challenge, encouraging Congress to draft legislation to achieve these aspirations. It is sometimes referred to as the "Second Bill of Rights."
In our day these economic truths have become accepted as self-evident. We have accepted, so to speak, a second Bill of Rights under which a new basis of security and prosperity can be established for all — regardless of station, race, or creed.
Among these are:
All of these rights spell security. And after this war is won we must be prepared to move forward, in the implementation of these rights, to new goals of human happiness and well-being.
A virtual community is a social network of individuals who interact through specific media, potentially crossing geographical and political boundaries in order to pursue mutual interests or goals. One of the most pervasive types of virtual community include social networking services, which consist of various online communities.
The term virtual community is attributed to the book of the same title by Howard Rheingold, published in 1993. The book, which could be considered a social enquiry, putting the research in the social sciences, discussed his adventures on The WELL and onward into a range of computer-mediated communication and social groups, broadening it to information science. The technologies included Usenet, MUDs (Multi-User Dungeon) and their derivatives MUSHes and MOOs, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), chat rooms and electronic mailing lists; the World Wide Web as we know it today was not yet used by many people. Rheingold pointed out the potential benefits for personal psychological well-being, as well as for society at large, of belonging to such a group.
These virtual communities all encourage interaction, sometimes focusing around a particular interest, or sometimes just to communicate. Quality virtual communities do both. They allow users to interact over a shared passion, whether it be through message boards, chat rooms, social networking sites, or virtual worlds. 
It's argued that online relations are not as valuable as offline ones because there is less socialization. Concerns with this kind of interaction also include verbal aggression and inhibitions, promotion of suicide and issues with privacy. Studies regarding the health effects of these communities did not show any negative effects, but that doesn't mean that there is no harm done. There was a high drop out rate of participants in the study that if continued could have led to a negative net effect. The health related effects are not clear because of the lack of thoroughness and the variation in studies done on the subject.
On civic participation
Online communities seem to have a direct impact on civic participation. 20.3% of members do something in real life at least once a year to support a cause related to their online community. 65% of members have started involvement in civic causes since they connected to the Internet. 43.7% are more involved with social activism since connecting with their online communities. Over half of virtual community members sign into their respective communities every day and 70% interact with other members daily.
In the book, Ritzer took central elements of the work of Max Weber, expanded and updated them, and produced a critical analysis of the impact of social structural change on human interaction and identity. The central theme in Weber's analysis of modern society was the process ofrationalization; a far reaching process whereby traditional modes of thinking were being replaced by an ends/means analysis concerned with efficiency and formalized social control. For Weber, the archetypal manifestation of this process was the bureaucracy; a large, formal organization characterized by a hierarchical authority structure, well-established division of labor, written rules and regulations, impersonality and a concern for technical competence.
Bureaucratic organizations not only represent the process of rationalization, the structure they impose on human interaction and thinking furthers the process, leading to an increasingly rationalized world. The process affects all aspects of our everyday life. Ritzer suggests that in the later part of the 20th century the socially structured form of the fast-food restaurant has become the organizational force representing and extending the process of rationalization further into the realm of everyday interaction and individual identity. McDonald's serves as the case model of this process in the 1990s. The book introduced the term McDonaldization into learned discourse to describe mind-numbing sameness.
Self-concept or self-identity is the sum total of a being's knowledge and understanding of his or her self. The self-concept is different from self-consciousness, which is an awareness of one's self. Components of the self-concept include physical, psychological, and social attributes, which can be influenced by the individual's attitudes, habits, beliefs and ideas. These components and attributes can not be condensed to the general concepts of self-image and the self-esteem.
Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as she/he is influenced by her/his belonging to a group or culture. Cultural identity is similar to and has overlaps with, but is not synonymous with, identity politics. There are modern questions of culture that are transferred into questions of identity. An ethnic identity is the identification with a certain ethnicity, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry. Recognition by others as a distinct ethnic group is often a contributing factor to developing this bond of identification. Ethnic groups are also often united by common cultural, behavioral, linguistic, ritualistic, or religious traits. Processes that result in the emergence of such identification are summarised as ethnogenesis. Various cultural studies and social theory investigate the question of cultural and ethnic identities. Cultural identity remarks upon: place, gender, race, history, nationality, sexual orientation, religious beliefs and ethnicity. National identity is an ethical and philosophical concept whereby all humans are divided into groups called nations. Members of a "nation" share a common identity, and usually a common origin, in the sense of ancestry, parentage or descent.
A religious identity is the set of beliefs and practices generally held by an individual, involving adherence to codified beliefs and rituals and study of ancestral or cultural traditions, writings, history, and mythology, as well as faith and mystic experience. The term "religious identity" refers to the personal practices related to communal faith and to rituals and communication stemming from such conviction.
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